Chinese traditional architectural craftsmanship for timber-framed structures

Chinese traditional architectural craftsmanship for timber-framed structures



you traditional Chinese architecture craftsmanship for timber-framed structures has its own unique system in characteristics through thousands of years of development with so much rich experience accumulated over time Chinese craftsmen have developed very sound technical methods regarding the choice of building materials types of framework manufacturing of components installation and so on which have been handed down from masters to their apprentices through examples and verbal instructions by employing the architectural craftsmanship various kinds of architectures such as palaces temples gardens residential houses and assembly halls cater to the needs of people from all walks of life reflect Chinese people's view of the universe the traditional Chinese hierarchy society as well as interpersonal relationships and demonstrate the wisdom of ancient technology not only are they the projection of Chinese people's unique aesthetics but also representatives of ancient oriental architectural technology different architectural schools with local characteristics emerge during the development of the architectural craftsmanship for traditional timber frame structures such as the Beijing School the Shaanxi school week wage Oh school and the pseudo school timber-frame is the core of the structure there are mainly two types of framework for traditional Chinese timber structures one post and lintel and the other column and tie beam the framework consists of wooden components including columns beams purlins rafters and bracket sets generally known as structural frame the tendon joints connecting the wooden components contribute to the flexibility of the structure which makes it more earthquake resistant for instance the nine hundred and fifty year old wooden pagoda indian county shaanxi remains intact in spite of going through many big earthquakes planning and construction based on the modulus components manufactured beforehand the construction of traditional timber frame structures requires a large number of craftsmen's coordination during the manufacturing process therefore it is necessary to have some unified standards regarding the size of modulus and manufacturing method over 1,400 years ago or even earlier ancient Chinese craftsmen discovered the rule concerning architectural modulus and worked out the basic modulus unit it was then possible for the whole structure to be proportionally built in accordance with strict planning all the components could be manufactured beforehand and installed according to the unified working procedure making full use of the quantities of the wooden materials and greatly improving the production efficiency this method became the essence of ancient architectural technology there is a sound working procedure for the construction of traditional Chinese timber frame structures take carpentry for example a complete procedure which includes tree felling timber cutting detailed treatment and so on has to be strictly followed at all times although tools and techniques have improved over time traditional craftsmen work on the materials by giving their inherent qualities full consideration to quote their jargon fat timber for beams slim timber for columns which indicates craftsmen's consideration of the load-bearing quality of the timber the wooden components such as the moon shaped beam shuttle shaped column in bracket set are manufactured in such ways that they are not only beautiful in shape but also emphasize their load-bearing qualities Chinese have always attached great importance to the construction of residential houses many rituals have developed in their work and life over time there are corresponding rules in rituals during different construction stages when certain activities take place such as the selection of land planning preparation for the construction materials decision on the date for construction commencing of the construction completion of the construction and house moving etc for example on the important occasions when the foundation is laid the doors are installed or the beams or position firecrackers will be lit to expel ghosts and devils couplets will be hung on the doorframe for good luck after the beam is position traditional Chinese architectural craftsmanship for timber-framed structures is mainly handed down from the masters to their apprentices through their examples and oral instructions there is usually an acknowledgment ceremony when someone becomes an apprentice to a master the central government launched a general investigation concerning intangible cultural heritage in 2005 nomination and review concerning a list of Representatives were carried out amongst the published list 11 entries concern architectural craftsmanship for timber frame structures in 2007 the Institute of architecture studies of Chinese Academy of Art carried out a great deal of fieldwork and study and established a three dimensional database for traditional Chinese architectural craftsmanship for safeguarding architectural craftsmanship for traditional architecture traditional Chinese architectural craftsmanship can now be studied and recorded with the help of advanced digitalized multimedia in order to promote knowledge about traditional architectural craftsmanship a variety of publicity activities have also been held such as the effort to introduce architecture models to the community or the Klaus today what the ancient craftsman had left with the Chinese is still widely used and will surely continue to be passed on from generation to generation Oh


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