Designing Distribution Networks

Designing Distribution Networks

so in this chapter we cover various
designs for distribution networks and we also look at applications to online
sales whereas you know distribution plays a very important role in any
supply chain so distribution involves steps taken to move and store a product
from the supplier stage to the customer stage in a supply chain so one stage is
when we have raw material and components that move from supplier to manufacturer
and the other stage is when the finished product goes from manufacturer to
customer so it may be direct or it may be wire distributors retailers
warehouses and so on so let’s look at what are the factors
that are involved in designing a distribution network so these factors
can be classified into two major categories one is customer service and
second one related to supply chain cost so under customer service we have seven
factors that are listed here starting with response time so response
time is how much time it takes from placing an order for a product or item
till customer receives it product variety involves different types or
different makes of a product for example if I want to buy a TV from say Best Buy
and if Best Buy stores only one type of TV so that may be very negative for
customer service product availability has direct impact on customer service so
if we go looking for a product and it is not available obviously that will be
negative while finding a product or placing an order for the product or
receiving the product that has been ordered so that experience comes under
customer experience time to market is if for any new product is launched
how quickly it can be brought to market for example if a company has a website
then that product may be available through the website
almost immediately other visibility is once I place an order for the product
and till it gets delivered if I am able to find out where in the supply chain
that product is whether it has been shipped whether it has arrived in the
city where I live and what is the estimated time it will come to my house
so all those things relate to order visibility return ability is how easy or
difficult it is to return a product for example if I buy something from a nearby
Walmart store and if there is any problem with the product I can go back
immediately and return the product but if I purchase something through website
return ability may not be that easy now coming to a supply chain cost if a
business need to keep inventory of these products at various retail stores
obviously the cost will go up but if products are sent directly from the
manufacturer to the customer so amount of inventory to be kept may be lower
transportation could be inbound or outbound
usually inbound transportation is less expensive because fully loaded trucks
can be used but outbound the transportation could be expensive
because sometimes these items have to be sent or transported to individual
customers and their homes so if a product is sold through various retail
outlets so in that case facilities and handling
costs may be high whereas if a product is sold directly from the manufacturer
plant without any need for any other facility like warehouse or distribution
center so in those cases the facility and handling cost could be low so
nowadays many of the businesses they maintain like online websites and
information regarding the product and other details are available from there
so that adds to the cost but also it helps to make the product available
almost immediately to the customers to find out features and other things
related to any new product if you look at first picture here when
the number of facilities is high the amount of response time obviously will
be low so for example Walmart has outlets in so many different cities they
have more number of facilities and that’s how they are able to maintain low
response time on the other hand if number of facilities is low then
response time is likely to be high so for example Amazon maintains a very few
warehouses and if anything has to be shipped it has to be shipped from one of
those warehouses which are not available in every city so that’s why amount of
time it takes for those product to arrive at a customer could be slightly
higher if you look at transportation cost versus number of facilities when
number of facilities is low transportation cost is likely to be high
because then those items have to be transported from a longer distance on
the other hand when number of facilities are high then transportation cost is
likely to be lower next one is inventory cost versus number of facilities when
number of facilities is low inventory cost also is generally low because
inventory has to be maintained at low number of facilities but if a business
has more number of facilities in the supply chain so that will result in
higher inventory cost because at each facility they have to maintain some
amount of inventory facility cost versus number of facilities so when number of
facilities is low obviously facility costs will be lower and when number of
facilities is high obviously facility cost will be higher too so now let’s
look at logistics cost so logistic cost involves inventory
transportation and
facilities and handling cost you can see that initially when number of facilities
increase total logistics cost comes down and it reaches a low value and then at
some point it starts to increase so initially when number of facilities is
increasing inventory costs may go up slightly but transportation cost comes
down but when number of facilities increases beyond certain point the total
logistic cost starts to rise again because the facilities cost and
inventory costs will be much higher on the other hand when the number of
facilities increase response time continues to go down so when designing a distribution network
there are two key decisions that need to be made first one is whether the
products or items will be delivered or they will be picked up by the customers
and second is whether or not there will be some intermediate location so
depending on answers to these two there may be six different distribution
network designs that might be used so first one here is manufacturer storage
with direct shipping so items are shipped directly from the manufacturer
there is nothing in between second one is manufacturer storage with
direct shipping and in transit merch third one is the distribution storage so
there is a distribution storage between manufacturers and customers and this is
with carrier delivery so something like UPS or FedEx they will deliver the
product fourth one is distributed storage with last mile delivery so for
this last mile there may be some third party logistics companies that might be
used fifth one manufacture distributed storage with customer pickup so
sometimes customer may place an order and once that order is received at a
certain location then the customer can go and pick up that item and the last
one is retail storage with customer pickup so let’s look at each one of
these six distribution network designs one-by-one so first one is manufacturer
storage with direct shipping so you have several manufacturers
which make the product and store those products at the location and retailer
does not store anything they only collect the orders from
customers this information about the product that the customer needs flows
from customer to the retailer and then that information is passed on to the
manufacturers and once those the products are ready so
they might be ready or manufacture may have to produce them in either case once
it is ready it is directly shipped from the manufacturer to individual customers
so this process is also called drop shipping
so what happens with such a design is if you look at inventory inventory costs
are likely to be lower because they are kept at manufacturers end and there is
no intermediate warehouse or distribution center where these
inventory items need to be kept so inventory costs obviously goes down
transportation cost is likely to increase because from the manufacturer
those items our products need to be transported to individual customers
facilities and handling costs will be lower because you don’t need many retail
stores or many warehouses or distribution centers so the
manufacturing facility itself is being used to keep the product or to keep the
inventory so this is low information cost is likely to be higher because
there has to be a good coordination between retailer and manufacturer and
finally customer now let’s look at service factors so if we look at
response time response time is longer because a customer has to place an order
to the retailer and then retailer provides that information to the
manufacturer so if that product or item is not already available in the
inventory then the manufacturer has to produce it so response times usually
will be higher with this kind of design so with this network design it is easy
to provide high amount of product variety so for example when the customer
contacts the retailer maybe through a website or any other process customers
can be given a lot of product variety because the retailer’s are in touch with
so many different manufacturers product availability also is likely to be higher
because of aggregation all the inventory is kept by manufacturers and from that
inventory product can be made available quickly so customer experience may
depend on certain factors because customers receive home deliveries so
that’s a plus point but if customers have placed an order to the retailer and
where products from different manufacturers are involved which results
in receiving like partial orders from time to time that may be a slight
negative for this kind of design time to market will be high because as soon as a
manufacturer can produce a product it becomes available
so in that sense time to market that is going to be good all their visibility
could be a challenge because so many manufacturers are involved but some
investment in information technology may be needed but still because of
coordination of retailer with various manufacturers it could be challenging
similarly return ability is also bit difficult so it’s not that customers can
walk into a store with their product and return it they may have to contact the
manufacturer and then go through some procedures and processes before they can
return their products so this could be a good design for those kind of products
or items which are slow-moving and which are also of high value and also where
customers are willing to wait to get their deliveries next Network design is
manufacturer storage with direct shipping and intranet merge so what you
see here is we have these customers and then retail
is which get the information about what products are needed by the customers and
then they pass on that information to factories or manufacturers and then
those products are sent via in transit merged by courier instead of directly
shipping them to the customer as we have seen in the previous type of design so
one example of this type of design is where a customer orders a computer from
Dell and then they also want a monitor to go with that computer and that
monitor is by Sony so when a customer places this order with the retailer and
that information is passed on to the factories so this computer and monitor
may come from different factories and then they are merged at in traffic merge
and then these two go together to the customer so if you look at the inventory
cost so it is going to be similar to the previous design where inventories are
kept mainly at manufacturing facilities or factories transportation cost is
likely to be somewhat lower because of the merge so if there was no intranet
merge then computer would have arrived separately to a customer from one of the
factories and monitor would have arrived maybe in a different shipment to the
customer so that would have increased the cost but with the merge the cost
comes down because once it is merged then customer receives entire order as
one facilities and handling cost is likely to go up slightly because of this
extra step of in transit merge similarly costs related to information is going to
be slightly higher because this extra information needs to be shared or
coordinated at the point where in transit merge takes place looking at the
service factors in this design response time will be similar to the previous one
product variety and product availability both are going to be similar to the
previous network design that we have seen customer experience is going to be
better than the previous one because the customer will not receive like partial
orders but they get the entire order in one order and time to market order
visibility and retain ability is going to be similar to the previous design distributor storage with carrier
delivery so here we have warehouse storage which is provided by the
distributor or the retailer so for any product or item customers interact with
the distributor or retailer and the distributor or the retailer they
interact directly with factories so one good example of this type of for
distribution network design is Amazon so generally Amazon keeps slow too fast
moving items in their warehouse and very slow moving items are kept even further
upstream so in this design if you look at the inventory carrying cost so this
is likely to increase because apart from some inventories that are kept at all
the factories now inventory has to be maintained at these warehouses so
compared to inventory that are kept by manufacturing in this case
transportation cost is lower and it is especially lower for fast moving items
facilities and handling cost obviously increases because now we have this extra
warehouse in between so information related cost is likely to be lower
because the system needed is less complex so customers directly deal only
with this distributor or retailers like Amazon so customers do not have to
really interact with factories there directly so looking at the service
factors response time compared to the first design is obviously lower so time
between order placed and order received so that gap reduces because most of the
time amazon can ship that item or product from the inventory itself
product variety is going to be lower than the manufacturing storage because
there is only so much of variety that can be kept at warehouse looking at the
product availability so if you compare this to manufacturing storage so
obviously in this design the same level of product availability will come at a
higher cost customer experience is expected to be slightly better because
now customers have to deal only with the retailer like Amazon and they don’t have
to really deal with illusion factory’s time to market this is going to be
higher compared to manufacturing storage order visibility is going to be
obviously better so customers can track whatever items Amazon has shipped
return ability is going to be easier again compared to manufacturing storage
next one is distributed storage with last mile delivery so items are stored
at a distributor or retailer warehouse and from there they are delivered to the
customer the final or last mile delivery obviously is arranged by the retailer or
the distributor last mile delivery here means that the package is not delivered
by the package carrier but the distributor or retailer makes
arrangement to deliver product to customers home so for example I may go
to Best Buy website I want to purchase a a big size TV let’s
say 65 inch TV and if I do not have a transportation to carry at home in my
truck or car the retailer is likely to arrange for that delivery if you look at
inventory carrying cost so in this design inventory carrying cost is higher
than obviously manufacturing storage because these inventories are need to be
maintained at distributors and retailers rear houses but inventory carrying cost
if you compare with the retail stores so that is going to be lower transportation
cost is going to be higher compared to situations where deliveries are made by
package carriers because they can aggregate the products across various
factories or manufacturers but in this case the distributor or the retailer
need to make the last mile delivery so obviously that increases the cost if
they make use of like some third party logistics companies they may be able to
still keep the cost lower facilities and handling cost is going to be obviously
more than a manufacturing storage but it will be less than retail stores cost
associated with information is going to be similar to the previous design that
we looked at if you look at service factors response time could be quite
quick sometimes deliveries could be made
within a day or two if the products are available nearby product variety is
likely to be larger compared to retail stores product availability also is
going to be better compared to retail stores customer experience is going to
be good especially for like big and bulky items that the customer is not
able to carry home on their own so they’ll be happy if the delivery is made
at home so time to market with this design is going to be slightly height
order visibility obviously will be better compared to manufacturing storage
so return ability will be easier compared to earlier designs that we have
seen but retain ability will be difficult if
you compare that with retail outlets manufacturer or distributor storage with
customer pickup so there are many businesses which allow customers to
place an order online and then they are provided a place where they can pick up
their orders so there are various pickup sites that are being used so if you look
at inventory related cost so this is not going to be very different from other
designs but the biggest advantage come in terms of for lower transportation
cost because customers are willing to pick those orders from a location so
these businesses need not make arrangements to send those products to
individual homes so transportation cost is a big plus now a facility and
handling cost depends if the facilities already exist then there won’t be any
additional cost but if the facilities do not exist nearby where customers can
pick up their orders so in that case those facilities have to be built and
that will obviously be expensive information related costs are likely to
be quite high because this kind of infrastructure is definitely needed to
coordinate things between customers pickup sites factories retailers and so
on so looking at the service factor response time is going to be similar to
the previous ones that we have seen product variety also is likely to be
similar to what we have seen earlier same thing for product availability
customer experience is going to be lower if you compare it with the situations
where customers receive home delivery so obviously now customers have to go to
the pickup sites so in that sense customer experience is going to be lower
time to market will be similar to the previous one other visibility
so this is obviously important for the customer return ability is going to be
easier because if customers need to return anything they can easily go to
the pickup site last one is retail storage with customer pickup sawdust or
items are stored at a retail store and customers can place an order and then
pick up those items from these retail stores so if you look at inventory cost
so inventory carrying cost is going to be higher compared to all other options
because now you need to have these retail stores at more and more locations
which are closer and closer to the customers transportation cost is going
to be lower because all these stores are much closer to customers so in that
sense it will be lower facilities and handling cost obviously will be much
higher for example Walmart or Best Buy or Target so they have to open their
stores in almost all cities they have to have significant investment in those
facilities cost related to information so nowadays if you look at any business
even if they have lot of retail stores so some investment in infrastructure is
definitely needed so that customers if they want to place an order or shop
through website so all those things should be available so because retail stores are much closer
to customers so sometimes you could have same-day pickup if for that product or
item is already available at the store product variety is going to be lower
compared to all other options and product availability so this is going to
be more expensive if you compare this with any other distribution network
design so these products need to be available at every retail store and that
sometimes could be difficult sometimes customers may face they just talk out
and those items are either sold out or they are not available
customer experience obviously depends whether customers are more comfortable
doing online shopping or they like to shop at a store time to market this is
going to be highest if you compare with any other distribution network design so
any new product it takes time for that product to reach each and every store
order visibility obviously if somebody is shopping in the store so those items
are already there but for orders that are placed online that could be
challenging and the last item return ability so this is the easiest one
because customers have access to these retail stores they can go any time if
they find the product has any issues if you compare all
networks across the cost factors and service factors so this is what we will
get so in this matrix 1 corresponds to
strongest performance so one is good and six is bad so that the weakest
performance so for example if you look at the response time so retail storage
with customer pickup so first design has the strongest
performance because it is almost immediate whereas manufacturer storage
with direct shipping so the rating is 4 because it is not immediate but since it
has to be shipped from the manufacture storage and depending on where the
manufacturer is located and where the customer is located it might take one
day two day or even more days but if you look at product variety then obviously
manufacturer storage with direct shipping performs much better compared
to retail storage with customer pickup product availability also at manufacture
storage is the best because of aggregation and product availability at
retail storage may be challenging customer experience is best when
customers receive home delivery and it is not so great in manufacturer storage
with pickup so time to market for manufacture storage with direct shipping
has excellent performance whereas its retail storage with customer pickup is
bit challenging on the other hand order visibility works better with first
design here retail storage with customer pickup but with manufacturer storage
with direct shipping the rating given is 5 because there are so many
manufacturers and coordination among customer retailer and the manufacturer
so that could be challenging and because of that order visibility may not be very
easy return ability obviously is best with the retail storage with customer
pickup so customer has access to those tools and if they have any problem they
can just go to those posts and return the product
but it’s not that easy with manufacturer storage inventory levels will be
performing best the cost will be the least with the manufacturer storage but
with the retail storage and customer pickup it is going to be comparatively
difficult or more expensive transportation cost for the businesses
will be quite low if customers pick up items but if a manufacturer has to ship
them obviously that will result in higher cost with more and more retail
stores facilities and handling cost will be much higher if we compare that with
manufacturing storage where there are no warehouses or distribution centers
retail storage with customer pickup so in terms of information related cost
performance is very strong and manufacturing storage with direct
shipping so that is not as strong so in this matrix plus two means very
suitable and zero is neutral and negative two means very unsuitable so
first design obviously is a very well suited for high demand products but it
will not be a good design for very low demand products because if there are
products for which demand is low then retail stores if they have to carry that
inventory they have to carry it for a very long time and that will cost more
and more money similarly if quick response is desired then this first
design is obviously very very suitable but if low customer effort is needed
then this design is not that suitable if you look at second one which is
manufacturer storage with direct shipping so this is not that well-suited
for high demand products so for high demand products obviously retail stores
closer to the customer that’s much better but this type of
design is very much suited for very low demand product and also very high value
products but if a quick response is the desired then this is not going to be a
good design so this is also very suitable for high product variety
manufacturers storage with intranet merge so this design is not so well
suited for quick desired response but very well suited for low customer effort
package carrier delivery so this is very well suited when there are many product
sources and also when low customer effort is desired
so last mile delivery so this is a very negative or unsuitable for very low
demand products and this is more suited for low customer effort manufacturer
storage here with pickup so this is a very well suited for high value products
but very unsuitable when quick response it decide
when choosing Network that suits a particular business generally businesses
do not go for a single type of distribution network but they go for a
combination if you look at a company like Apple the customer can shop online
on their website or they can go to Apple Store businesses do employ a combination
of approaches so nowadays the online sales have become
very important for most of the businesses so let’s look at customer
service factors for response time if you are downloading a software or electronic
or digital book or music or movie so response time is almost instantaneous
one can do this almost immediately but for other products it could take some
time maybe sometimes a single day or several days if you go to you
can see that a lot of variety is available so business which is selling
online for them it is much easier to provide product variety on their
websites product availability this could be a big
plus point for online retailers like Amazon so they are able to aggregate
demand at few locations compared to businesses that sell through retail
stores in online sales businesses can provide lot of things that may not be
available otherwise so for example on if you are looking for a
product you get a lot of information about the product but you also get
information about what other products customers have found interesting and
also you can get customer reviews you can write a review yourself and so on
because of internet time to market again is a big plus because any product that
is launched can be immediately brought to online platforms with all the
information that customer may find interesting order visibility so nowadays
because of again internet and technology it has become very easy to track orders
direct sales so again internet allows various manufacturers to reach their
potential customers and many times businesses use social media platforms
like Facebook or Twitter and advertise their products directly to the customers
flexible pricing portfolio and promotions so this is again easier with
on mainsails efficient phone transfer so
nowadays the one can buy things on the internet using credit cards things can
be purchased on the smartphone itself there are so many ways payments can be
made much easily so inventory costs for online sales are generally lower because
products can be aggregated at various warehouses and that will bring down the
inventory carrying cost facility cost also is lower with online sales
transportation cost it depends on what product or service is being provided if
for the product is a software or the digital product then transportation
costs obviously will be very very low but if it is something like TV or a
computer so that has to be shipped in transportation costs for those items
will be higher so in online sales again information is a big plus because most
of the information can be shared across the supply chain very quickly and at a
very low cost so that so let’s look at these factors for Dell and in this core
card we look at like two different types of products one is customized servers
and the second one is standard laptops that dil sells
so across these the factors the rating of plus 2 means it’s very positive zero
means neutral and negative 2 means it’s very negative so when customers place an
order online for a customized server response time is obviously somewhat
negative because they are not expected to receive them almost immediately but
then you’ll see there are many very positive factors like product variety
customer experience is very positive because customers can go on the website
and explore different ways they can customize those servers so that’s a very
positive thing time to market again is plus 2 direct sales is positive but if
you look at cause so inventory and facility cost so again
these cost will be much lower but transportation cost will be somewhat
negative because they have to be shipped to the customer on the other hand if you
look at standard laptops selling standard laptops online is clearly not a
very good idea you don’t see many positives like there’s only one plus 2
which is efficient one transfer so you are able to pay using a credit card or
you can pay on your computer or through mobile that’s the only major positive
thing so let’s quickly add these points separately for customer service so for
customized service we get plus 13 points whereas for standard laptops the total
score is just positive 5 so huge difference when it comes to customer
service and in terms of cost we have plus 4 here for customized service and
the total is zero for standard laptops so this makes sense like selling a
standard laptops through website may not be a very great idea it will be much
better if it is sold through retail outlets or at places like Best Buy or
Walmart or Target so that will be much better for something which is more
standard so for Dell looking at these are two examples a tailored supply chain
network would suggest that we should go for a hybrid model so in this hybrid
model they should sell customizable servers online and they should sell
standard laptops why are retail outlets so the benefits will be most significant
as Hardware becomes more of a commodity take advantage of the strengths of both
online sales and traditional retail and distribution channels the company like
Dell can benefit by going for a hybrid approach so let’s look at Amazon and
compare of physical books versus ebooks so if you look at physical books
for customer service related factors the total score comes to +5 whereas for
ebooks it comes to +10 so Amazon is obviously much more effective selling
ebooks online in terms of cost we have total of negative 1 for physical books
and +3 for e-books online sales of e-books is a big plus obviously for
Amazon especially since they came out with Kindle that has popularized ebooks
a lot so this scorecard clearly shows that selling ebooks online is a much
better approach Amazon with Barnes and Noble
so stores like Barnes & Noble would carry so many different books so
customer can walk in and buy a book but with Amazon coming into picture a
customer is able to buy not so popular books also from Amazon compared to books
which are like bestsellers and as far as bestsellers are concerned they are
nowadays available at not only book stores like Barnes & Noble but you may
be able to find them at Walmart or Target and many other stores so
traditional bookstores like Barnes & Nobles in that sense they are now
pressured from both ends so one end you have like bestsellers being sold almost
everywhere and then on the other hand you have companies like Amazon and
Amazon is obviously very very efficient because nowadays customers have accepted
digital formats and companies like Apple they make use of iTunes to sell books
music movies and you also have Google Play with the similar platform so pea pod is a company that makes home
delivery of grocery and they make use of online platform if you add the scores
for customer service we see the net score of zero and in fact negative four
when it comes to supply chain cost so you can see that as such online sale or
for grocery is really very challenging both in terms of customer service and
supply chain cost and many businesses have tried this and also they have
failed miserably and Peapod maybe is one of the companies that still survives
so supermarkets what they can do is they can complement strength of their
existing network so supermarkets that already exist they can have online
presence and cater to needs of those customers who are willing to pay
slightly more price for that kind of service where they place an order and
then employees at the store they collect whatever is needed and then either make
home delivery or a customer may pick up from the store and that saves some time
so depending on what customers would like to do a supermarket may be able to
offer array of services at different prices based on amount of work the
customer does so for example if it is going to be a home delivery then
obviously the cost is going to be higher customer should be ready to pay more
whereas if the customer is willing to come and pick up the order that cost
could be slightly lower so another company that has been really successful
with online sales is Netflix and Netflix is the reason why blockbuster went
bankrupt Netflix has been making many changes to
the way they offer their services so there was a time when with the same
subscription a customer was able to get deliveries of DVDs as well as watch
digital content and then at some point they made a decision to separate
two things so if you look at physical dvds and if you do the math for customer
service the score comes two plus three whereas digital content if you do the
math it’s about plus seven if you look at the supply chain cost for DVDs the
total score comes to zero and it is positive for digital content Netflix
uses centralized model to supply wide variety of movies and other vendors like
red box so they have installed vending machines customers can go on a website
and reserve the movies they want to watch and generally these the vending
machines will have maybe the latest movies or children’s movies so if you
compare a red box strategy with the Netflix so obviously Netflix has a
bigger advantage because they are able to make available not only new movies
but also old movies and documentaries and many other things why a centralized
model and they are also able to provide services like if you like a particular
movie so what other movies you may like based on whatever data they collect from
customers viewing habits and compile them analyze them to come out with
recommendation systems for distribution networks in practice the ownership
structure of the distribution network can have as big as an impact as the type
of distribution network so within the supply chain network who owns what part
obviously plays a very important role for example if the distribution network
is not owned by the manufacturer versus if it is owned by the manufacturer those
two designs will obviously have different outcomes it is important to
have adaptable distribution networks so
nowadays we are living in a world where things change and customer habits change
their preferences change so if a distribution net
work is adaptable and is flexible obviously it is a big plus so businesses
which are not able to adapt their distribution networks obviously can face
a lot of challenges and we have seen examples of companies like blockbuster
who went bankrupt because they did not have adaptable distribution networks
another example where company failed to adapt their distribution network is
bookstores borders but if you look at Walmart they have been very successful
because they had adaptable distribution network so Walmart was able to take
advantage of Internet to complement what they have been doing earlier product
Fry’s commoditization and criticality affect the type of distribution system
preferred by customers so if you look at example of Apple so Apple has been very
very successful selling their own products through their
stores but as the products become commoditized then it becomes very
difficult to adopt the same approach so for commoditized products customer go
to places which are not manufacturer specific and we may see this more and
more with even products like smart phones or computers and the last one is
integrate internet with existing physical network so many businesses are
doing this very very successfully whether it is Walmart Target Best Buy so
nowadays most of the big players they have internet presence also apart from
their physical networks

13 thoughts on “Designing Distribution Networks

  1. Thank you very much fot this, I have 2 questions if you don't mind,
    which of the following distribution designs does IKEA adopt ?, and what is the push/pull strategy of IKEA?

    Thank you again,

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