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Hello everyone. I welcome you all to my course Role of Craft
and Technology in Interior-Architecture. It is an interdisciplinary course and it focuses
on understanding the interrelationship between craft and technology
in interior architecture. So, before delving into exploring this interrelationship let
us first understand separately what is craft and technology and what is interior architecture. So, module one, we will begin with this it
focuses on interior architecture what is its meaning, what is its definition, what do we
understand by interior architecture. So, that we have a comprehensive understanding before
getting on with another subsequent modules. So, this is just the outline of the contents
what this module we will deal with. Interior architecture – meaning, definition,
understanding, interior architecture – what is its importance, and what is its scope, interior
architecture – interior design and interior decoration are the same, are the different,
how do we distinguish between them. Few projects that will help us understand
what interior architecture is all about. Then the overview of the entire module, it will cover
interior architecture, its types, the elements that constituted, courses which are offered
globally based on interior architecture and the degrees which are offered and the references
the books and the other resources that one can referred to. So, let us begin with what is interior architecture. Interior architecture is relatively a new discipline we will see how did it evolve and
what does it mean. So, if we go by a formal definition then the in the book the fundamentals
of interior architecture the authors have defined it in a certain way. The term ‘interior architecture’ emerged
in 1970s as the description of a discipline that employs architectural theory, history and
principles in the design and creation of interior space. So, the important thing here is that they
are talking about the application of architectural theory, history and principles
of design. So, interior spaces are as complicated as
the building envelope or the façade or the architecture itself. Its growth was an part due to a perception
that by employing the rigour of architectural thinking together
with the sensory understanding of interior design, a synthesis could be produced that
was both intellectually and humanistically satisfying and which overcame the narrow specialisms
of façade-driven architecture and contexts free interior design that were prevalent
at that time. So, it is very important to understand that
we are marrying the architectural thinking along with the sensory understanding of an
interior space and then there were lot of ambiguities and uncertainties related to the
term interior design, it was not just it did not have to be context free, it did not have to
be only façade driven architecture. So, keeping account of all these events and discourses
happening during that time this terminology came up and it has been very widely accepted
and is also being developed slowly. Interior architecture to simplify it encompasses
the outer envelope of a building as well as the interior environment. So, it could be termed as a coherent term
which is used for architecture and interiors. And it needs to be understood in current architectural education and design practices. Also to simplify it further one could say
that it is designing and interior in the terms of architecture
or an architectural terms. So, when I do not consider my interior space
just as space which has to be treated or which has to be superimposed with anything,
but something which comes up with architectural thinking along with the sensory
experiences then I would call it as interior architecture. This is one example of Jewish museum in Berlin
this has been designed by a very famous Architect Daniel Libeskind. So, if we see this pictures over here there
is a staircase leading to a gallery, this side,
and this is another hall over there which allows coming of the light inside and creates a sort
of a very meditative environment. So, these pictures are like very simple ones, but they
talk a lot about the space. So, all the spaces do not have to have very
particular function, but sometimes the form the colour the light and the quality of space
which is generated it could be to create a meditative experience where the user can connect
both physically and emotionally. So, I personally visited this museum and I could
just very instantly connect to the space and there were will lot of gamut of emotions that
came in when we see the history of Jewish museum why it was made for, what was the purpose,
all that the architect was able to generate within me as a person. So, this is one nice example where I put in
for the interior architecture where we have all the sensory organs in place, we have a nice
architectural design and we have the experience within a space. Now, before going ahead further we would like
to have a little bit discussion on why is it important to understand and study interior
architecture, I mean by at all do we study it, why is it so important. So, taking ahead the discussion that we had
over the last few slides, interior architecture centres on developing
the design of interior spaces for specific uses, these uses could be commercial,
residential, public spaces, housing or mixed use projects, and also the knowledge
of adaptive reuse. So, if there is already existing space and we want to reuse it in
certain ways then there are strategies involved within the reuse of that space which is called
as adaptive reuse. So, interior architecture deals with both
creating of spaces for specific uses as well as designing them for adaptive reuse. And it covers a very wide range of professional,
functional, technical and theoretical topics. If you would like to study interior architecture
formally as a degree qualification or practice it later than the kinds of topics
that it considers or discusses are interior design history, interior construction methods,
social and community issues integrating programming, human behaviour and the making
of atmosphere, surface materials and detailing, developing and building conceptual
or functional furniture prototypes, furniture theory, advance electric lighting
design, colour theory and sustainable interiors. Now, if one focuses on this list of topics
which is like very wide and diverse and very much important, one would realise what all
do we need to study while we are talking about interior architecture what all do we
need to incorporate and integrate while we are working on interior architecture projects. So, all of these are very important aspects when we talk about community issues and we
talk about human behaviour, the psychology, when we talk about furniture the
colour, lighting. Like right now if I am here sitting at this
desktop what is the amount of light in that is coming, what kind of surface is it, is it
absorbing, is it reflecting the light, what kind of illumination on lux levels I am getting over
here, what is the colour scheme of this place, because right now this is an office setup
where in academic office setup where we are discussing and we are having this lecture,
so what kind of colour scheme should go here. So, all of these important things come into
picture when we talk about interior architecture. There as much technical as they also considered
the psychological well being, how human being would respond to a certain type
of design. So, all of these things need to be really understood when one talks about interior
architecture its education, pedagogy or its practice. Now, the very important question and that
confuses lot of people is Is interior architecture not interior design? are the
same, are the two different things, is one the extension of the other and why I at all we
talk about interior architecture and not interior design. Little bit of it while introducing I had discussed,
why this term interior architecture came up, but to take the discussion further. The discipline of interior design has been
treated with lot of uncertainties; it is getting reduced
to just interior decoration that is one major problem. Interior decoration deals primarily with surface
treatment, selecting fabrics, furnishings and curtains. So, when we are restricting ourselves just
to treatment, just to surface finish or just the selection of a curtain or a furnishing or
a fabric then according to me and of course, according to lot of scholars and practicing
architects it does not come anywhere close to interior design, it just becomes interior
decor or interior decoration. So, it is very crucial to know and understand
that designing interior spaces is not just about treatment and decoration. It involves way much more this is why a very comprehensive term like interior architecture
came up and has been widely and popularly used since then. Now, what distinguishes interior architecture
from other related disciplines? There are some important points which give interior
architecture its distinction its identity. So, few of the important ones here are this discipline
and closing structure and its context is acknowledge and within this discipline, it
involves manipulation and experience of three dimensional space not just surface treatment,
it primarily deals with forms and volume not only two d shapes and surfaces. So, this is very important this we have been discussing throughout this module. When we talk about a space in terms of three
dimensionality, in terms of volume the third dimension and we are not treating it
just as a 2D surface like a shape. So, that is where interior architecture has a distinction
and it takes care of a very holistic approach; It employees the sensory stimuli of sound,
touch, smell and site which are essential parts of the interior experience. It recognises light as a very important medium
for defining of space, creating effect, producing the well
being for the inhabitants. It employees materials and colour as integral components
of the designed environment. So, these are few basic and very crucial important points
when we talk about interior architecture. There are few projects in the field of interior
architecture we can just have a look at them, so that we have more comprehensive understanding. We also have demonstrations and exemplary illustrations of what interior
architecture is about. Most of the projects that I am going to show you they have been
awarded, they have been recognised by AIA, the American Institute of Architects. And the award that is based upon them is institute honour awards for interior architecture, these
are very prestigious awards. So, this is one project the first one we will
start with this. This is an office building for digital marketing firm called the Barbarian
Group. If you see here in the interior space over
here it is like a very interesting interiors they have given the conventional requirements at
an office space would require, but they have done it in a very innovative way. So, if we see this table which seems like
endless, it flows here in there, takes a turn, takes rise and then dips and there are splashes
of it, here it again extends into another surface. So, this is called superdesk. And here what we see is that the furniture
extends to become the structure. So, there is an identity, there is a defined
entrance through the structure which then ends over here is furniture. Then we see that there are gathering spaces,
there are lifting over pathways then there are workspaces which are created here the
people can sit together and work. So, this is very interesting for me and just a little
idea which talks about the senses and designing interior spaces very sensibly. To give the details of the materials it uses
plywood which is made of 870 unique laser cut panels and
the top surface is light reflecting it is white in colour absence of any colour, but it goes
so well with the ambience and the office space that is needed. So, the surface is light reflecting pearlescent
white with a clear epoxy coatings. So, it also has an epoxy coating. So, this was a very fascinating project and
I really like that. And this is Louisiana State Museum and again
it has been awarded by this prestigious award. If you see here there are some keywords that
i have listed down. So, if we see the form along with that if we see the structure. So, in this project there is a science of
a marriage between form and structure there
is a synthesis. So, my form and structure everything seems integrated, it is not like
there is an outer envelope and then I have put things inside in a way with does not go with
the overall structure. So, and then I see the play of light and the
lighting is little bit it is natural there is some lighting which is manmade. So, there is a dialogue between the man made
and the natural. So, synthesis of form and structure is primarily
what I really liked in it and another way to really distinguish this project
is by the way the lighting is done over here. This was another interesting project. Coming to the next one, these keywords will
really help us understand what these projects stand out for and what are those
aspects of interior architecture that really go into the making of these project into creating
these spaces. This is another office building which is in Washington DC, if we see over
here there is a major play of light then there is a major play of texture. If we see this wall it has a nice texture
to it. So, it gives us textuality and it gives a certain kind of
experience to us. There is a play of white again, there is absence of colour, but white very
much does justice to this kind of tranquil peaceful space that is required. What is another thing that is very interesting
here is a physical and visual connection to the building lobby. So, the way there is a connection from this
level to this level and the way there is this visual connect the way people
can interact or see things what is happening around that was very interesting
again. And the architects have described it very nicely that this project focuses on blurring
the line between circulation and enclosed spaces. So, it is a very fascinating project again. So, then another one project, this is a project
which is meant for musical and technological fields we can see it is very
vibrant colourful, there is a play of primary colours, there is blue, there is lot of red
over here. Here this is red and blue, then we see nice fixtures which also add to the space
and the experience within it here also we see there is a visual connect and there is an
interaction. So, the spatial planning is done in such a way that there is an interaction people
can see through, they can discuss, they can interact. So, that kind of spatial planning is over
here. Interesting furniture is there we also see
a little of the carpet and the rug, how furnishings and fabrics come into picture. Then we talk about lighting, so there is also
lighting from top the kind of roof form that has been designed. So, there is natural light as well as mechanical light. So, colours, light, furniture, space frames
all in all creating a very nice exuberant space that is another nice project. This project is very very interesting and
I would like to spend the little time on this slide. So, this is crystal bridges museum of American
art. And this is something which I would like to say that this slide tells what this
course is about role of craft and technology in interior architecture. So, basically this project the design was
inspired by the works of a basket maker from Arkansas. He is very famous for making baskets which
are sculpturally ribbed, which talk about a structure and form. So, if we see over here this is series of
224 parallel ribs which are made of locally harvested cherry
plywood. So, local material is there, craftsmanship
is there, it is inspired from a basket maker his skills, how he creates forms and structures
and these parallel ribs which are harvested from this local material they were digitally
fabricated directly from the firm’s building information modelling delivery process. So, this is again how craft and the skills
about which will discuss later of course in the
second module can go into creating a nice structure and space and experience for us. Another example this is Illinois state capital
west wing restoration project. It is known for its exuberance the variety of materials
that we see over here, the interior architecture style. Just look at the grandeur, and the kind of
richness, and the kind of detailing that we see over here. The colours that we see which are very vibrant,
but still subtle they are not over the top then the flooring over here also
other railing that we see. So, lot of detailing play of colours, play of materials over here
that is why this project also I found by very interesting. This is another project which will give us
an idea about this discipline call interior architecture. This is the very famous 9 11 memorial museum
which is a New York. If we see the picture over here visual connect like
this and it talks about time and space for reflection and remembrance. So, we all know why this was made for and
there are so many people whose memories and experiences
are attached to this building. So, this creates that kind of experience for them. And other important thing is surviving slurry wall which is very revealed over here not
really concealed, not plastered, not coated with anything, so whatever slurry was remaining
from the original building that went into the constitution of this space. Then there are lot of stories that the space
evokes and there is; obviously, a play of light and dark which is pay deliberately done to
create spaces and experiences. Another project is Newport Beach Civic Centre
and what is interesting in this project is that it has lot of clarity and openness. It was designed for civic life in a Southern California beach side community, it is very
simple yet it is very appealing it has this rhythmic wave shaped roof, it is very well
lit, it has array interiors there are lot of ventilation then another very fascinating
thing is that it has views of the pacific ocean. If you can glance through this over here there
are openings and their views, one could have very nice views of the Pacific Ocean
and form and expression they are generated by place and sustainability. So, this design goes by the vision of the
communit y, their lifestyle, what kind of spaces do they prefer. So, that way it is again a very holistic project. This is another project this is not really
an awarded one, but here also if we see the detail. How the, you know the seating the material
used over here extends into wall and then it goes on to become the sealing and there is
entire form and structure play and this huge nice view to the outside in the experiences
that are created within when you sit; So, again a very interesting project. This is a very simple yet very interesting
project where the focus has been kept on material. So, we see lot of materials over here stone,
timber, fabrics, flooring. So, the entire ambience that is created the entire
setting that is created, the kind of lighting, again it is open over here and there is lot of light
that comes in, the kind of colour palette that has been very wisely chosen and the justice
that is done to the entire space which is created. The overview of the module so far what have
we discuss and a little bit more after that. So, if we have to summarise what interior
architecture is basically about? So, summarising it interior architecture is a
globally recognised career that focuses on the design of interior spaces. It could be called as interior design with
architectural thinking. It deals with understanding the built and
the natural environment. It could focus on region to room approach
studying large outside spaces and smaller interior spaces and how they influence each
other. It deals with spatial design and not just with treatment or decoration. It deals with creating spaces that encourage
human interaction at large; Influencing people and
how they live, work, shop, travel. It also focuses on solving functional and aesthetic
problems. Now, since we have an understanding of the
term interior architecture and we had a look at you projects let us go ahead with understanding
the concepts, place and space because more often than not we use them very wrongly
or interchangeably. So, not going into too many details, but just
giving a brief overview. The word ‘place’ has more substance than the word location
suggests. It is very particular or personal in nature and it has an identity, history, memories,
experiences and meaning. Whereas the term space it suggest universality which can
be related to many people. Space and place together define the nature of geography. So, it is very important that we understand
this difference and apply them accordingly. Now, just giving an overview of the different
types of interior spaces that can be created, and the kind of interior architecture projects
that one could indulge in; These are some major categories which are again identified
in listed by existing literature and scholars. So, if we see the major categories retail
spaces is one, we have works paces, living spaces, public spaces, there are spaces which
are transient in nature, the restorative spaces. So, if we go by retail spaces the kind of
spaces or the kind of projects that one would indulgent while doing retail spaces
would be shops, banks, showrooms, restaurants, bars. The work spaces, work spaces usually as a
name suggest some meant for work. So, offices, workshop, studios, factories, living
spaces – these are majorly residential buildings, hostel, accommodations, hotel accommodations,
public spaces. So, airports, railway, bus station, cinemas, theatres, museums,
galleries, religious, buildings all these could come under the public spaces. If we talk about the restorative spaces the
major projects would be hospitals, clinics gymnasiums, spas. Transient spaces they are very interesting
and transient in nature they could be pavilions, exhibition, display galleries
and so many other projects, but these are the major ones which have been identified. Now, if we have to sum up what are the elements
and composition of interior space. These would be largely as we dwell upon while
dealing with the architecture because largely and ideally we are dealing with the
space. So, elements would be more or less same, but we would be dealing them with a
little difference as far as the sensory experience is concerned or lighting is concerned
or a play of colour is concerned. So, the elements would be plain, scale, proportion,
vista, movement, transition and accessibility. So, all of this for this module we will not
go into much detail because we will be seeing in subsequent modules how these
elements are applied in projects, so we leave it at that, ok. Before going ahead this is something very
important which is put on the slide. Since we had an understanding of space and place and
we are talking about interior architecture maybe it is not bad to have a look at these
important terms, and these have been again borrowed from the book fundamentals of interior
architecture. Just to give us an idea what is structure, what is fabric, what is
façade, what is construction mean, what do we mean by a dialogue. So, as stated technically the structure which
is designed in this book is the arrangements of the various parts of
something and often referred to in architecture as the assembled or constructed parts of the
building. Fabric, the main body of a building usually
the walls the floor the ceiling .Function, what is the purpose of designing that space what
is the practical use of it. Facade; The exterior plains on the front of a building that we
see from outside; Construction the placement and interrelationship of structural elements. Dialogue, the word dialogue is used in every day speech to mean a verbal interchange between
people in the language of design, in the same way the word is used to describe
the practical or sensory interaction between the components of a whole scheme. So, just to have an overview and understanding these terms would be nice, let us just stay
with them and see how in the subsequent modules we explore them. Now, this is a very comprehensive list of
different kinds of courses which are offered based on interior architectural globally. And this is not a very exhaustive list the
list goes on endlessly there are many more to add, but
these are the ones that are more popularly known or which have proven to be very famous
and popular and which have resulted in good interior architects who have come up
in research and practice. So, Aalto University is one, then we have
UNSW Australia, University of Oregon, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Boston Architectural
College is there, University of Canberra is another one university of South
Australia, Victoria University in New Zealand, then there is RISD Rhode Island School
of Design, we have CEPT University in India, Academy of Art University which
is based this San Francisco and we have HFT Stuttgart. So, all of them of a degrees and courses on
interior architecture usually at masters level, but in few cases it is also
at the bachelor’s level. So, before ending this module on interior
architecture I would like to quote something which has been with me since a very long time
since I have read about it. It is a quote by a famous Corbusier. It is says “Space and lights and order,
those are the things that men need just as much as their need bread or a place to sleep.” So, I think I let the thought settle without
saying anything and it means a lot what he has summed up in few words. So, we will end with this module today. These are the references you can go for further reading
and this will help you a lot. Thank you.


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