SuperPro Designer: Fermentation Simulation

SuperPro Designer: Fermentation Simulation


In this screencast, we’re going to go through
an example of simulating a fermentation using the SuperPro designer software. Now this problem
gives you a number of pieces of information that would help you with a simulation, setting
up a fermentation. First and foremost, it tells you what the stoichiometry of the fermentation
reaction is, and you can see that here in the middle, and then we get certain information
about the feed and exit streams. The rest of this problem can be seen below, in which
we’re given temperature data as well as some enthalpy data that we’re going to use. The
main question is that we want to determine the amount of time required to completely
consume the reaction components and determine what the rate-limiting reactant is for this
system. So to do this, we’re going to use SuperPro Designer. Now when you start SuperPro
Designer, you’re going to get to screen that asks you whether or not you want to open an
existing process or start a new one. So click on the start a new process, and click OK.
It will then ask you whether you want to do batch or continuous operations. Since this
is a batch fermentation, we’re going to make sure that batch is clicked, and then click
OK. So this brings us to our main screen, which becomes our process flow diagram. Now,
I’m going to do 2 things. Since we’re working with just a specific section, I’m going to
rename that section, which you can do here. I’m going to call it fermentation. So if we
were doing a large process where we had multiple different steps that process, including separations,
we can label each of those sections so that when we do our cost analysis, we can focus
in on these areas. Now branches can also be used if you have side reactions that you’re
working on, or other problems that come into that main branch, so I will rename this branch
fermentation reactor, and hopefully you can reference the document that is linked next
to this video so that you can figure out what species we need to add, and that’s the first
thing we need to do is identify the components that we’re going to use for this reactor and
this system. So we go to tasks, and we can go to pure components, and register, edit/view
properties. And at this point we want to make sure we add all of the things involved in
the reaction, so as you saw before, we need to add biomass, we need to add MAB, monoclonal
antibody, we also need to add air, and media, so I’m going to start going through those,
how to add that. So let’s first add biomass. You can either search for it in this box,
or scroll down and find it in our list. So you can see we have biomass right here, and
we click on the register button to add it to our list. Now I’m going to do this for
carbon dioxide as well as sodium chloride. Now you see that an error message came up
saying that we don’t have all the physical properties needed. However, we don’t need
a heat of vaporization for this reaction, so we’ll just click OK and know that it’s
not in the database of properties. Now let’s say I added the wrong chemical by accident,
I added this sodium chlorate. We can always click on this X up here to remove it. Now
there are a couple components listed in the problem statement that aren’t in this list,
so we add a new component by clicking on this wand icon up in the top right corner. So here
we can add whatever we would like. So I’ll type in impurity, since that was one of the
things listed, and not have to worry about all the other things. Hit OK, then I’ll also
add media. Now that you have all your components added to this problem, we can click on OK.
Now we need to add our fermenter. So we can go to unit procedures, and we’re working with
a batch vessel, specifically a fermenter. You’ll see an icon that says add step, so
you click anywhere on your screen, and we now have our fermenter. So you can see what
streams we have entering and exiting our fermenter. So we need to label those streams and create
them in our simulation. So create streams, we’re going to go to this icon next to the
arrow that says connect mode, and we’ll click anywhere here on our chart, and then click
again at an inlet to our fermenter. So I’ll do this for our 5 streams, so we have our
5 streams, but we would like to change the names so they match what we had in our problem
statement. So to do that, go back to our arrow icon, and then click on the stream. Right
clicking will bring up some options, where we can then choose edit tag name. So for this
one, we want to enter in water. We can then change this to media, and so forth. So we
want to identify the streams and make sure that the right components are in them, so
if we double click on the water stream now, it will bring up the following menu. We can
choose which one of our components make up that composition, and since this is all water,
clicking on water and dragging it into the field here allows us to choose what the conditions
are for this stream. So clicking on ingredient flows allows us to change this value to 7800
kg/batch, since that was the problem statement. We can then make sure that the temperature
down here and the pressure are correct. So we click on OK, and now we’ve labeled that
water stream with the correct component. We’re going to do the same thing for the media stream.
This time, we want to make sure we have our biomass as well as our media as the two components
that make up this stream. We can click on ingredient flows, and set our media stream
to 5 kg/batch biomass and 375 kg/batch of media. Again, the temperature is 25 degrees
and the pressure is 1.013 bar. Click OK. Now when we open up the air stream, one of the
things we can do with the air stream is click on stock mixtures. You can add stock mixtures
to your workbooks as you go forth and do this, but air is one that is standard with SuperPro.
Clicking on it will allow us to change the composition of the air, but since it’s a stock
mixture, we really want it to automatically adjust to what’s necessary based on our reaction.
So we can click on this auto-adjust down below. So depending on the stoichiometry, it will
determine how much air we need to add to our system. So the next and last thing that we
really do is set the fermenter up by adding operations. So if you right click on the fermenter,
right click on add/remove operations, there’s a whole list of operations that we can control
for this fermenter. So this process will require two charges, one for media, so we’ll add a
charge, and another one for water. We’re also going to need to heat it to its fermentation
temperature, so click on heat, add that. We can then add kinetic fermentation, a cooling
phase, and then transferring everything out of the fermenter. Now you can see that this
isn’t quite the operation sequence that we want, so we need to make sure we put things
in the right order, so we’re going to charge, then we’re going to heat, we’re going to ferment,
cool, and then transfer. So once we have these set up in the right order we can click OK,
and now we have to set them up. So again right click on the fermenter, now we go to operation
data and start with the first charge. So it brings you a couple of tabs that are important
in determining how you want to set up this reaction, so first and foremost, we’re going
to charge with the water stream, and we’re going to make sure it imported the right amount
of flow, which is 7800 kg. Now we can determine other conditions. So for the setup time, let’s
use 5 minutes. We’ll use a volumetric flow rate as 100 liters per minute. Since this
is all we want to determine with this charge, we can then click on this tab at the bottom
which says OK, next operation. It will take us to our charge for the other stream. This
one we’re going to click media, again we have a mass of 380 kg. This time we’re going to
have a setup time of 20 minutes, and a mass flow rate of 10 kg/min. We can click the next
operation to move on. This brings us to our heating operation. Now for most fermenters
and in this problem statement, the fermentation takes place at 37 degrees, so we’ll put 37
degrees here as the final temperature, and we’ll set the rate of heating as 0.5 degrees
Celsius per minute. There’s no other things that we need to set up necessarily to do this
material and energy balance problem. As you can see, there are a number of options in
terms of changing the utility used as well as adding in information on the heat transfer
rate. That’s something that you would determine on your own before simulating. Now the fermentation
is the one complicated aspect of this process. That’s what we’re focusing on, it should take
the most amount of effort. So the final temperature is 37 degrees. We’re going to say that there’s
no setup time, a 24 hour reaction time, and a specific power of 3 kilowatts per meter
cubed, in terms of using it for agitation, mixing. These are all default values that
appeared when we opened up the fermentation operation. Now we can click on the volume
tab and say that the maximum allowable volume is 90%. If we click on reactions, we need
to set up our stoichiometric reaction, so we go over here to this flask-looking icon,
and it brings up a table where we import our reactants and our products. So clicking on
this, we can bring in our reactant. We know we have media, and oxygen that reaction to
form more biomass. Obviously we need biomass in the first place, but we don’t add that
as a reactant. Carbon dioxide also forms some of what we said was an impurity, monoclonal
antibody, and water. So it’s important at this point to make sure we have our mass coefficient
icon clicked on, and then we’re going to fill in the proper values for this, so I’m just
going through the problem statement and doing this for our reactants and our products. We
should have the following values, and I’ll click on OK. Now we were told that this reaction
does have an enthalpy of reaction associated with it, so we’re going to unclick the ignore,
and we’re going to make sure we type in the correct enthalpy which is 3,687 kcal/kg, and
it’s negative. The reference temperature, or reference component, is oxygen, and it’s
referenced at 37 degrees since that’s our fermentation temperature. Now, we need to
click on the reaction scheme box up here to enter in kinetic information related to this
fermentation. Starting on the left, we’re going to click media as our substrate, and
make sure that Monod kinetics are applied. We’re given that it has a Ks as 36 kg/L. the
reference component up here is our biomass, and we’re going to use a mu max value of 0.2
hours inverse. For the biomass we can click here and make sure we select the correct biomass,
and that it’s first order. Click OK, and now we’re almost done with our fermenter. We go
up to Vent/Emissions and make sure we have the proper components coming out of the vent.
So we’re going to check the emissions box, click on the emitted for carbon dioxide, and
then we want to set it to a specific value, and since this is the only thing coming out
of the vent, we’ll make it 100%. We don’t have a condenser at this point after our ferementer,
so we’ll turn that off. Then, we want specific data collected for this fermenter, so we go
to profiles. We want to know what the biomass over time looks like, as well as the monoclonal
antibody production and the media usage. So we check those three boxes. This will collect
data for us during the simulation, which we can then open in Excel and plot. At this time
we have everything entered that we want, we can click OK, and the only last process that
we have to set up is the cool and the transfer, so clicking on cool will bring us to the cool
operation. Now, we want a final temperature of 5 degrees, and we want to use a different
utility, since chilled water won’t get us there very efficiently. So double clicking
on glycol will bring up glycol as our utility, then we can again set our cooling rate, so
we’ll use the same cooling rate as heating rate, as the 0.5 degrees Celsius per minute.
Clicking on the next tab will bring us to our last operation for our transferring out.
For this operation, we’re going to make sure that 100% of the vessel contents get emptied
out with no setup time, and we’re going to set the time for this transfer as 272 minutes.
Clicking OK tells us that we have an error. We need to select a valid stream for our port,
so just like we did before with some of the streams, we want to select down and go to
broth to say that that’s how we’re going to transfer everything out through that stream
that we labeled before, and now we have our process fully developed. At this point, it’s
probably a good idea to save your work. We want to solve the material and energy balances,
so this calculator icon up in the middle will do that. So clicking on it shows that we performed
the M&E balances successfully, and we can click on the vent and broth streams to look
at the flowrates of each of the components. So it’s done our material and energy balances
for us. We can also look at the broth and see what the flowrates for the biomass and
our products will be. Since we are interested in the composition results with time, we can
right click on a fermenter, go to dynamic data records, and save it in an Excel formatted
file. Click yes, and it will give us the option of saving our data. Opening this data and
plotting it, and we changed our secondary axis so we could better view the monoclonal
antibody production over time, you can see that our media gets to a value of zero right
around 16 hours, which shows us that that is our limiting reactant in this reaction.
Now if we right click on the ferementer, we can also click on procedure data, and that
shows us that we have a batch fermentation cycle that requires 32 hours for this part
of the process. Lastly, we can go to reports, and click on material & streams, and it will
generate a report if we’ve saved it. Now we’ve generated our full report for this process,
which gives us an idea of the operating time, materials that we’re using, it gives us physical
properties of the streams as well as composition, it shows us the time for each part of the
process, all the operations that we used, and all this would be very important, especially
with a large process in which this is just one operation. Now one last trick to show
you is that because we’ve set this up as a section, the fermentation section, we can
go to edit section properties and we can change the color of this area by clicking on the
following. So say we want to label all this as red. Hopefully this gives you a good idea
of how to run some parts of SuperPro, especially with setting up a fermentation.


8 thoughts on “SuperPro Designer: Fermentation Simulation

  1. good video, I have a question.
    What is a Mab produt of the estequiometric reaction?
    I think it is as the main produc
    I hope you answered me!!!
    thanks!!!

  2. If I have a batch process with recycle cells and the calculations of the program does not come out of recycle, ie, do not advance. What could be causing the problem? Where can I be missing?

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